Let us begin a discussion about the fourth dimension. It is theorized that there are four spatial dimensions. This is not an entirely new idea. According to Dr. Albert Einstein and his General Theory of Relativity, space and time are joined into one entity called space-time. This space-time is described as a fourth dimensional expanse, where time is not an independent element. Dr. Einstein joined space and time together in order to prove that light travels at the same speed in a vacuum for all observers regardless of the relative position of the observer or the relative motion of the observer. However, the author has chosen to keep space and time as separate entities. Space will be composed of four spatial dimensions by itself, and time will be an independent element strictly used to relate events in the order which they occur. Thus there exists four spatial dimensions independent of time.

First, we will define the four spatial dimensions in terms of the four axes involved with them as (X, Y, Z, W), being the first, second, third, and fourth dimensional axes respectively. Just as the two-dimensional y-axis is perpendicular (at a right angle to) to the one-dimensional x-axis, the three dimensional z-axis is perpendicular to both the two-dimensional x- and y-axes. In a similar way, the fourth-dimensional w-axis is perpendicular to all of the three-dimensional axes. This is difficult to comprehend since our minds are trained to think in three-dimensional terms. How would one draw a four-dimensional w-axis in a three dimensional drawing? It isn't possible, but it doesn't mean that it doesn't exist. Thus, we say there is a fourth spatial dimension perpendicular to the third spatial dimension.

Let us say that the forces associated with the Laws of Physics (gravitation, electromagnetism, strong and weak nuclear) are caused by "shifts" in the w-axis with respect to the third dimension. How is this possible? Let us examine a thin sheet of paper with the x- and y-axes represented thereon. The sheet of paper exists in two dimensions, but if we pick it up and curl it, it now exists in the third dimension. In the same respect, if we effectively "pick up and curl" the third dimensional world we live in, it will move into the fourth spatial dimension. Imagine there are two marbles on this sheet of paper. If we were to pick the paper up and curl the ends down, the marbles would roll away from each other, or be repelled. If the paper were curled with the ends up, the marbles would roll toward each other, or be attracted. In the same manner, when our third spatial dimension is curled, objects will either be attracted toward each other, or repelled. These are the forces of gravity (attraction) and electromagnetism (repulsion).

Now, it is hypothesized that gravitation, electromagnetism, and the weak and strong nuclear forces are caused by shifts in the w-axis. These shifts occur when matter is converted to energy. Just as in the gasoline engines in our cars, the Solid Rocket Boosters that carry the space shuttle into space, and a steam engine, matter is converted to energy, which causes acceleration and propulsion. Let us refer again to the Shadows report for a detailed description of the way that the fourth dimensions act upon our three dimensional world.

"Gravitational energy is derived to be the result of a depression in the surface of three-dimensional space with respect to the fourth spatial dimension. Kinetic energy is described in terms of an elevation in the surface of three-dimensional space with respect to the fourth spatial dimension. However, the direction of the force associated with a gravitational depression in space will be opposite to the force generated by the elevation in space associated with kinetic energy. Therefore, a molecule on the incline associated with a gravitational depression would attain a downward velocity towards, not away from, the apex of a gravitational depression that is directly proportional to the magnitude of the slope of the incline. The greater the mass of an object the greater the slope of the gravitational depression it generates in the boundary between the third and fourth spatial dimensions. Therefore, there exists a direct relationship between the mass of a body and the velocity such a body attains towards the apex of a gravitational depression. Since the slope of the elevation in space associated with force of kinetic energy is the opposite with respect to the depression associated with force of gravitational energy they will interact with object in an opposing manner. Kinetic forces interact to repel objects while gravitational forces attract objects."

It is intuitive that there is a direct relationship between the mass of an object and the forces acting on it. There is also a relation between gravity and the terminal velocity an object will attain while in a gravitational depression. These are expressed by familiar equations:

where a is the acceleration of gravity, m is the mass of the object, v is the velocity, s is the original position, and F is the resulting force. We can clearly see that since gravity is a depression in third dimensional space, objects will roll toward the object causing the depression. Also, since kinetic energy is an elevation in the third dimensional space, objects will move apart after the collision where the kinetic energies of the two objects involved is transferred or lost. Let us be reminded of Sir Isaac Newton's third law which states "The actions of two bodies on each other are always equal in magnitude and opposite in direction."

Electromagnetism, a repelling force. |

Gravitation, an attracting force. |

The diagrams above are supplied to give the reader an idea of what has been spoken about in the previous paragraphs. If the fourth dimensional w-axis is shifted as matter is turned to energy, can it be possible to create a craft or machine that changes matter to energy such that the entire craft or machine will displace itself into the fourth dimension? If such a machine could be manufactured, would it not be possible to travel as fast as we wanted to as part of the fourth dimension?

This is a topic that will be discussed in the next chapter. In the mean time, it is important that the reader understand how the fourth dimension affects our three dimensional world. Remember that it is that which converts matter to energy which shifts the fourth dimensional w-axis. It is these shifts in the fourth dimensional w-axis that cause the elevations or depressions in our third spatial dimension. It is the depression or elevation in our third dimensional space that manifest themselves as attraction or repulsion of the objects involved. Hence, it is in this manner that the fourth spatial dimension interacts with our third spatial dimension.